Biyon Casta
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"Psychology of parenting and its impact on children personality development"

"Psychology of parenting and its impact on children personality development"

The parenting style terminology is
commonly used in psychology today is mainly based on the work ofDiana
Baumrind, a developmental psychologist.

Baumrind noticed that preschoolers exhibited three different types of
behavior. Each type of behavior was highly correlated to a specific kind of
parenting. Based on extensive observation, interviews and analyses, Baumrind
identified three initial parenting styles: authoritative parenting,
authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting (1967).
Maccoby and Martin (1983) expanded this parenting style model using a
two-dimensional framework. They made further distinction by expanding
Baumrind’s permissive parenting into two different types: indulgent
(permissive) parenting and neglectful (uninvolved) parenting.
These four parenting styles are
sometimescalled the Baumrind parenting styles or Maccoby and Martin
parenting styles.
https://www.brighthorizons.com/family-resources/e-family-news/parenting-style-four-types-of-parenting .
Different
type of parenting style:

Parenting styles are categorized
based on two dimensions based on parenting behavior:

·Demandingness refers to the extend parents control their children’s
behavior or demand their maturity.
·Responsiveness refers to the degree parents are accepting and sensitive to
their children’s emotional and developmental needs.
1.Authoritative Parenting: (High demandingness. High
responsiveness)
Authoritative
parents
have high expectations for
achievement and maturity, but they are also warm and responsive. These parents
set rules and enforce boundaries by having open discussion and using reasoning.
They are affectionate and supportive and encourage independence. This parenting
style is also known as Democratic Parenting Style .

Based on Baumrind’s research,
children of authoritative parents are:

  • Appearhappy and content.

  • Are more independent.

  • Achieve higher academic success.

  • Develop good self-esteem.

  • Interact with peers using competent social skills.

  • Have better mental health— less depression,
    anxiety, suicide attempts, delinquency, alcohol and drug use.

  • Exhibit less violent tendencies.

https://www.verywellmind.com/parenting-styles-2795072 .
2.Authoritarian Parenting: (High demandingness and low
responsiveness)
Although authoritarian
and authoritative parenting styles have similar names, they have several important differences in parenting beliefs. While both parental styles
demand high standards, authoritarian parents demand blind obedience using
reasons such as “because I said so“. These parents use stern discipline
and often employ punishment to control children’s behavior. Authoritarian
parents are unresponsive to their children’s needs and are generally not
nurturing.

Children of authoritarian parents:
  • Tend to have an unhappy disposition.

  • Are less independent.

  • Appear insecure.

  • Possess lower self-esteem.

  • Exhibit more behavioral
    problems.

  • Perform worse academically.

  • Have poorer social skills.

  • Are more prone to mental issues.

https://www.parentingforbrain.com/4-baumrind-parenting-styles/
3.Permissive Parenting (Indulgent): (Low demandingness and high responsiveness)
Permissive parents set very few
rules and boundaries and they are reluctant to enforce rules. These parents are
warm and indulgent but they do not like to say no or disappoint their children.

Children of permissive parenting:
  • Cannot follow rules.

  • Have worse self-control.

  • Possess egocentric tendencies.

  • Encounter more problems in relationships and social
    interactions.

When it comes to parenting,
everybody has a different method. Uninvolved parenting is a style of parenting
that is characterized by few expectations and not much responsiveness. The
uninvolved parenting style is also known as neglectful parenting.

The uninvolved parenting definition
is that is it a type of parenting that has little demand and little response
when it comes to the children. Children are left to themselves, often feel
unloved, and may become emotionally stunted. Since there is no support from the
parents, the needs of the child are not being met.

Parents who use this style of
parenting usually have various reasons that they act this way towards their
children. Some parents may even reject their children altogether.
4.Neglectful
Parenting (uninvolved):
There are a couple of
characteristics of neglectful parents that are easy to pick out. These
characteristics are not always present, but all of them have consequences that
the children will have to live with. These consequences will be talked about
later, but here are the characteristics of uninvolved parents:

  • Emotionally Distant:
    • Parents will be distant and unavailable to their
      children. They will not be there to support them during hard times and
      comfort them. There is not much love and nurturing going on at all.
  • Supervise Very Little or Not at
    All
    • If the parents are even around, they will not have
      anything to do with what their child is doing.
  • Few or No Expectations for
    Children’s Behavior
    • There are probably very few, if any, rules that the
      kids have to follow. There is also no standard of behavior set, causing
      the children to act out and do whatever they would like.
  • Intentional Avoidance of
    Children
    • Parents may avoid their children in order to get away
      from having to care for them.
  • Too Overwhelmed With their Own
    Problems
    • Parents may have busy jobs or lifestyles that have no
      room for children. These lifestyles are often unhealthy ones, and the
      child may follow in their footsteps.
  • Do Not Attend Parent Teacher
    Conferences or School Events
https://www.psychologyinaction.org/psychology-in-action- 1/2018/4/23/k17ziyfqt1vy9tlytr9l9k48epdnur .
Uninvolved Parenting Examples:
  • When a child comes home from school, he is hungryand needs a snack. The parent will know this, but not offer a healthy meal
    or snack. The parent may expect the child to get something for himself.
  • The child has been at a friend’s place for a long time.
    The parent will not want to know where the child was or how long he was
    gone.
  • A child can be exhibiting symptoms of an illness that
    might go entirely unnoticed by the parent. If it is noticed, nothing is done
    about it.
  • Stealing something from a store will not warrant much
    reaction from the parent, who apparently could not care less about the
    child.
Uninvolved Parenting Effects:
The consequences of this type of
parenting fall on the child. The lack of parenting and love will hinder
development and cause other kinds of problems, like bad behavior or drugabuse.
Children may even succumb to illness because of a neglectful parent.

  1. Have to Learn How to Provide
    for Themselves:
    This situation robs children of their childhood, forcing them to
    be responsible for themselves and grow up too quickly. Older siblings
    tend to care for the younger ones but can become socially aloof and
    extremely introverted.
  2. Emotionally Withdrawn:Without the ability to express themselves, children
    will withdraw and become emotionally absent.
  3. Delinquency:Children that are not taught how to follow rules can
    wreak havoc on their lives. They might not be able to stick to school
    guidelines or even societal ones when they are older.
  4. Fear, Stress, Anxiety:This is due to lack of the support of the family. It
    is easy to become overwhelmed by life, and this deficit will have serious
    effects on their self-confidence.
  5. Brain Function:Neglect can have a grave impact on the development of
    the child’s brain. Neglect has been linked to illnesses such as panic
    disorder, PTSD, ADHD and even some dissociative disorders. It can also
    lead to memory impairment and depression.
  6. Personality:The lack of parental presence will cause the child to
    suffer from lack of personality development.
  7. Risk of Substance Abuse:Many neglectful parents have substance problems of
    their own, and the children may take this as an example to get through
    life. They can also turn to substances to escape from the loneliness of
    such a life.
  8. Fear Becoming Dependent on
    Other People:
    Since children of uninvolved parents have to depend on
    themselves for everything, trusting others becomes difficult and
    distressing.
https://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/types-of-parenting-styles/ .
Reasoning forNeglectful Parenting:
Many parents who use this style of
parenting are too involved with their own lives to bother caring for their
child. However, that is not the only reason that parents treat their kids this
way. Many other circumstances can result in this type of parenting.

Parent’s Childhood:If the
parent was raised in this way, it is likely that he or she will continue the
cycle. The parent will not feel any need to connect with his or her child. This
cycle can be hard to come out of, and it takes effort to do so.

Lifestyle:Parents that are busy with their own lives may believe that
their child will be okay by himself. They may also have substance abuse problems
that cause them not to care about anything else.

Personality:Some people just think that they are more important than
anything or anyone else. They have the strong urge to stand out and be seen.
This forces them to only look inwardly and not at anything else.

Understanding:A lack of understanding about parenting can also contribute
to neglectful parenting. A lack of
communication
or a misunderstanding of the child’s needs can cause parents to become
neglectful.

Intent:It is possible that the parents have good intentions behind
why they are neglectful of their children. They may want their child to toughen
up and learn how to be independent on his own. They do not realize that this
will be pushing their child to an unfair extreme.


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