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Knowledge and Digital Entrepreneurial Intention

Knowledge and Digital Entrepreneurial Intention
Prior Knowledge and Digital Entrepreneurial Intention. Prior knowledge is a knowledge the individuals have received before from their education, experience, and personal events. The prior knowledge assumed as a different set of information possessed by an
Prior Knowledge and Digital Entrepreneurial Intention. Prior knowledge is a knowledge the individuals have received before from their education, experience, and personal events. The prior knowledge assumed as a different set of information possessed by an individual that associated to a certain subject matter that might come from the experience of working[15], education and others[40]. Based on the social cognitive theory, prior knowledge is embroiled in the theory as a part of human behaviour that helps in building knowledge seeking behavior. Since this study investigates on digital entrepreneurial intention, the prior knowledge in here should be categorized as entrepreneurship prior knowledge. Empirical studies have indicated a direct relationship is found to exist between entrepreneurial knowledge on a business decision and entrepreneurial intentions[42]. Linan[28] also reported how entrepreneurial knowledge had a direct effect on individuals' entrepreneurial intentions. The author beliefs when people follow educational programs and have experience in using technology as a tool to acquire knowledge, mainly in technology and entrepreneurial fields, have a possibility to intention to plunge in digital entrepreneurship sphere or build a start-up business. High level of knowledge results in greater awareness about career option and makes the entrepreneurship intention become more coherent[30]. According toBasu, A. and M. Virick[3] prior entrepreneurship education has a positive effect on student's attitudes towards a career in entrepreneurship and also on entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Previous studies have noted that the exposure to educational programmes may strengthen an individual's beliefs, perceived capability, and self-confidence to initiate a venture [3][10][51]. The entrepreneurial experience and useful knowledge from learning the exposure to others can help to improve a strategy to increase entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy[5][30] ( Journal of Zambrut , 2019).

Knowledge and Digital Entrepreneurial Intention - Image 1

Self-Efficacy and Digital Entrepreneurial Intention. Self-efficacy defined as an individual's belief that he or she has the ability to learn and adapt[36]. The self-efficacy is the ability to produce creative outcomes[47]. Bandura[53] said self-efficacy is a result of a continuous self-appraisal process, where the reception, selection, and exposed weigh and integration of information to any intrinsic or extrinsic influence. Entrepreneurial self-efficacy means the degree to which one believes that he or she is able to successfully start a new business venture. Regarding the entrepreneurship field, individuals with a high level of entrepreneurial self-efficacy may also have strong occupational intentions to become an entrepreneur. This statement is in line with Shaver and Scott[43] venture creation study, which explained individuals who have a high degree of self-efficacy would also have confidence in his or her skills and abilities to start a business. Another factor reveals an entrepreneur needs self-efficacy. However, a person will only initiate entrepreneurial actions when self-efficacy is high in relation to the perceived requirements of a specific opportunity. Prior researchers also found a positive relationship between self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions[39][30][50]. The concept of self-efficacy plays an important role as the key predictor of entrepreneurial intention in entrepreneurship sphere[12].

Social Media. Social networking helps communication activity between individuals or communities to build a relationship. Social media is one of the examples of social interactions tools that use technology with very high accessible. Researchers like Veil, Buehner and Palenchar[49] say social media relies on Web-based technologies to turn discrete, usually, user contributes to give and post comments into an activity stream on this social media platform. There are many advantages student would get from the use of social media , for example students can share their work ideas, information and allows crossbreeding of knowledge or experience. Nicoulaou et al[34] clarified that extended social networks are leading components to successful opportunity. Social media is an external influence, which reflect on one self-efficacy resources, moreover it impact person entrepreneurial intention through the power of self-efficacy. Cho, So and Lee{8] argued that the construct of self-efficacy is inclined to an outside influence like relationship and communication to others. Thus, social models (role models) in social media may trigger someone self-efficacy. Supported by many psychologists, social media enables the models to share the way they thinking and convey their message to the users. A person believe that he or she possess the ability to be successes by seeing other person success or failure (encourage). The fact, social media may trigger self-efficacy process of formation of entrepreneurial intentions.

Material and Methods. This study uses a quantitative method and categorized as causal research. Causal is a study in which the researcher wants to delineate cause of one or more problems. Probability sampling method with the sampling calculation 311 respondents are the minimum requirement for this study, moreover the author use 356 respondents. All questionnaires have been distributed to final year students of Telkom University, Widyatama University, and Parahyangan Catholic University who enrolled in S1 Business Management program. The questionnaire answer uses 5 Likert’s scale.The data collected through online questionnaire on social media such as Instagram, Line, Whatsapp, and Twitter platforms. The 356 valid data were analyzed by using SEM analysis with the help of Lisrel 8.70 software.

Measure of Constructions. The research examined prior knowledge, self-efficacy, and social media as factors affecting digital entrepreneurial intention. The definition and measurement items for questionnaire were adopted from previous related research and described as follows:
Prior Knowledge referred as different set of information that owned by individuals which was connected with a certain subject that comes from working experience[42]. The prior knowledge in this study is based on entrepreneurial knowledge or experiences. There are 5 questions that were adopting from Lumpkin (2007) and Ozgen (2003) previous research.
Social Media is known as online provider for user generated content, which allows people to communicating with their social group in form of social media users contributions such as comments activity stream” [7]. In this research, the author asked the respondents are they the active user, how often, why they use it, and what for. There are 6 questions that are based on previous researchers like Ganda (2014), Park, Joo, Chang Sung, and Il Im (2017), and Finnah Fourqoniah (2014)
Self-Efficacy defined as something that someone has a confidence and ability to create creative output and overcome with come challenges. Six questions were adopted by some previous researcher like Farrukh (2017), Chen et al., (2001), and Jerussalem (1995). Some of the questionnaires included “I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough” and “If I am in trouble, I can usually think of a solution”.
Lastly, Digital Entrepreneurial Intention was measured with 10 questions that used Dutot (2016), Farrukh (2017), Linan and Chen (2009), Malebana and Swanepoel (2015) previous research questions. Digital entrepreneurial intention is basically the same with traditional entrepreneur intention, but there is an intention to implicate digital goods while running a business such as using social media platform for marketing, distribution, or knowing market place.
Results. Descriptive Analysis Result. From the calculations and scores of descriptive analysis of each variable, it can be listed into a summary, which is shown in Table 5.1 below. The highest score among the variables in descriptive analysis is Self-efficacy with percentage of 85,51%. The second highest score comes from Social Media with percentage of 84,57%. The third place is Digital Entrepreneurial Intention variable with the percentage of 79,71%. And the last one is Prior Knowledge variable with the percentage of 76,19%. Two variables are above the enough category and other two are in the very high category.
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