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Important facts about our nearest star "THE SUN"

Important facts about our nearest star "THE SUN"

Mean distance from earth : 1au (1.496 x 10 18)

Mean distance from milky way core: 27,200 light-years

Velocity : 220 km/s (orbit around the center of the Milky Way)

20 km/s (relative to average velocity of other stars in


370 km/s (relative to cosmic microwave background)

Equatorial radius : 696,342km

109 x earth

Equatorial circumference : 4.379 x 10 6km

109 x earth

Surface area : 6.09 x 10 12 km

12,000 x earth

Volume : 1.41 x 10 18 km 3

1.3M x earth

Mass :1.9885 x 10 13 kg

333,000 x earth

Average density:1.408 g/cm3

0.255 x earth

Center density : 162.2 g/cm3

12.4 x earth

Equatorial surface gravity : 274 m/s2

28 x earth

Escape velocity : 617.7 km/s

55 x earth

Temperature : center(modeled):1.57 x 10 7K


Corona:5 x 10 6 K

Age : 4.6 billion years

Rotation velocity : 7.189 x 10 3 km/s

(at equator)

solar system


1. The Sun does not have a solid surface or continents like Earth, nor does it have a solid core. However, it does have a lot of structure and can be discussed as a series of layers, not unlike an onion.

2. The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star (G2V) based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally and not completely accurately referred to as a yellow dwarf (its light is closer to white than yellow).

3. It formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud.

4. It currently fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result. This energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape from its core, is the source of the Sun's light and heat.
Important facts about our nearest star "THE SUN" - Image 1

Different layers of SUN as onion
6. For the purpose of measurement, however, the Sun's radius is considered to be the distance from its center to the edge of the photosphere, the apparent visible surface of the Sun.

7. In a frame of reference defined by the stars, the rotational period is approximately 25.6 days at the equator and 33.5 days at the poles. Viewed from Earth as it orbits the Sun, the apparent rotational period of the Sun at its equator is about 28 days.

8. Sunlight at the top of Earth's atmosphere is composed (by total energy) of about 50% infrared light, 40% visible light, and 10% ultraviolet light.

9. The atmosphere in particular filters out over 70% of solar ultraviolet, especially at the shorter wavelengths. Solar ultraviolet radiation ionizes Earth's dayside upper atmosphere, creating the electrically conducting ionosphere.

10. The Sun has a magnetic field that varies across the surface of the Sun. Its polar field is 1–2 gauss (0.0001–0.0002 T), whereas the field is typically 3,000 gauss (0.3 T) in features on the Sun called sunspots and 10–100 gauss (0.001–0.01 T) in solar prominences.

11. Most of the elements found in the Sun are in the form of atoms, with a small number of molecules, all in the form of gases: the Sun is so hot that no matter can survive as a liquid or a solid.
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