Economically, coffee is the second most exported commodity after oil, and employs over 100 million people worldwide.
Coffee (Coffea Arabica L.) is the major source of currency for Ethiopia and contributes more than 35% of the total export earnings. It is originated in Ethiopia. Coffee belongs to the family Rubiacea and the genus Coffea. The two main species of Coffee cultivated on a world scale are Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and Robusta Coffee (Coffea canaphora L.), which account for about 98-99% of the world Coffee production. Even if the high production potential and economic importance of Coffee production and productivity of crop is still limited due to post-harvest handling and processing problems. Coffee processing is aimed to lower the water content of fresh cherries to a level which allows the preservation of beans (about 11-12 %), removing all the covering which surround the beans and preparing the beans according to market requirements. Unintentional or intentional harvesting of cherries at several stages of maturation may have adverse impacts on coffee quality if these materials are processed together. Cherries at different stages of maturation should be separated and processed using different techniques in order to retain as much quality as possible. Cherries must undergo dry, semi-dry or wet processing as soon as possible after harvesting. The storage of fresh cherries in bags, heaps, hoppers or silos should not last more than eight hours. Otherwise unwanted fermentation will generate the dreaded “stinker” beans, which appear when the temperature before pulping exceeds 40-42°C. Even if the temperature does not rise to the point of creating stinkers, uncontrolled fermentation may have other negative impacts on the cup. Coffee cherries should not be kept in plastic bags. The damp airtight atmosphere that develops inside plastic bags favors unwanted fermentation that damages coffee quality. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to review on post-harvest and green bean coffee processing in Ethiopian ( International Journal , 2011).
Coffee (Coffea arabica L.), is a beverage drink in the world which is originate is the most popular side in Ethiopia; it is currently grown in many countries. Worldwide over 15 billion cups are consumed every day. In Ethiopia agricultural sector plays a central role in the economic and social life of the nation. Around 80 to 85% of people in Ethiopia are dependent on agriculture; among 80 to 85% about 40% of the sector contributes from cultivation of coffee [7, 8].In Ethiopia, the agricultural sector plays a central role in the social life and economic of the nation. Botanically, Coffee belongs to the family Rubiacea and the genus Coffea and the genus coffea consists of around 400 genera and 5000 spp. Among these economically important species are includes Coffee Arabica L. (Arabica coffee), Coffee cenophora L. (Robusta coffee), Coffee liberica L. ( Liberica coffee ) and Coffee exelsa L. (Exelsa coffee). Those economically important species of coffee vary in natural heights, age of bearing, leaf size, pollination habit, chromosome number, caffeine content, berry size, etc that make one preferable than the other. The two main species of coffee cultivated on a world scale are Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and Robusta coffee (Coffea anaphora L.), which account for about 98-99% of the world total coffee production . [ Cara publikasi jurnal , 2011].
In fact, Ethiopia is the only center of origin and diversity of Arabica coffee. But, now a days, Arabica coffee is cultivated in most parts of the tropics, accounting for 80% of the world coffee market and about 70% of production. Economically, coffee is the second most exported commodity after oil, and employs over 100 million people worldwide [4, 5, 6].The earlier use of coffee was as food, rather than as beverage. For instance, there are evidences which show that Oromo started using coffee as energy food long before its current popular use as beverage. There are also traditional beverages consumed locally, than the popular mode of consumption known worldwide.
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