Roasted coffee beans are cooled and grinded. Size of grounded coffee beans depends on its end use, where the particle size and particle size distribution of coffee
Liquoring and storing. After dehulling the coffee beans, the dehulled beans are roasted during which the distinctive coffee aroma originates due to a number of physico-chemical changes. Coffee roasters can be batch or continuous type and with development of technologies, now roasters are available which has temperature controls along with humidity, roaster gas recirculation facilities, precise roasting time control etc. Roaster temperature is maintained around 260°C and the temperature of the coffee beans may rise to 200°C. During the roasting operation, the coffee beans losses all the moisture and some other volatiles. There is change in volume and colour during the roasting operation. Colour of the bean changes from dullgreen to brown colour and the bean texture also becomes brittle after roasting. Roasted coffee beans are cooled and grinded. Size of grounded coffee beans depends on its end use, where the particle size and particle size distribution of coffee powder impacts the turbidity, brewing time and other properties. Coffee powder after grinding is recommended to kept under air-tight, vacuum or in presence of inert gases, since the presence of oxygen affects the quality to a much extent. Open packaging of coffee powder results in losses of volatiles in atmosphere. Coffee are brewed in hot water under different conditions like coffee to hot water ratio, particle characteristics of the coffee powder, hot water temperature, type of mixing, brewing time etc. All this factors affects the brewed coffee getting extracted which can be measure with standard hydrometer, calibrated by authorized coffee agencies [9, 10].
Summary. Botanically, Coffee belongs to the family Rubiacea and the genus Coffea. In Ethiopia, the agricultural sector coffee plays a central role for the social life and Economic of the nation. Around 80 to 85 % of people in Ethiopia are dependent on agriculture ; among 80 to 85% about 40% of the sector contributes from cultivation of coffee. Coffee is a favorite beverage for many people that consumed for its stimulating effect which is caused by the presence of caffeine whose many of us are not much aware of how the coffee is cultivated, processed and the science behind the characteristic coffee flavour development from the coffee seeds. This paper in brief reviewed about the processing aspect of coffee from harvest of berries to the green coffee processing. The characteristic coffee aroma and flavour was reported to be the combined effects of during the processing of coffee beans. It is understood that processing is a very important aspect for good quality coffee beans. After processing, proper care needs to be taken for package and storage of hygroscopic coffee bean.
Conflict of interest. Regarding the publication of this manuscript, there is no any conflict of interest.
Acknowledgement. We would heartedly like to thank and praise the Lord Almighty God in giving us strength and wellbeing to successfully complete the study. We also want to thanks for all Ambo University horticulture department staff for all their help and moral support. Finally, all the reference materials used in this paper are dully acknowledged.
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